The stone inlay technique in jewelry involves setting small pieces of stone, usually shaped as slivers or chips, into a substrate to form patterns, pictures, or abstract designs. The inlaid stones are flush with the surface of the substrate, as opposed to cabochons or faceted stones, which protrude from their settings. The substrate can be another stone, metal, or any other material suitable for holding the inlaid stones in place. The spaces between the stones can be filled with a cementing agent or another stone to create a smooth surface.
History and Origin:
Ancient Civilizations: The history of stone inlay in jewelry goes back thousands of years. Many ancient civilizations, including the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, used inlay techniques in jewelry, sculptures, and architectural elements. The materials used for inlay included colored stones, shells, and even bones.
Pictured Above: Two Rings with Lotus Flowers, 1400-1200 BC. Gold with glass, lapis lazuli, and carnelian inlay. Now in the Walters Art Museum.
Mesoamerica: The Aztecs, Mayans, and other Mesoamerican cultures used turquoise and other stones in mosaic inlay techniques for masks, jewelry, and other ceremonial objects.
Native American Jewelry: Perhaps one of the most recognized inlay traditions in jewelry comes from the Southwestern United States. Native American artisans, particularly from the Zuni Pueblo, are known for their intricate inlay work using turquoise, coral, shell, and other stones. Styles include both "channel inlay," where spaces (channels) are left between the stones, and "mosaic inlay," where stones are fit closely together without channels.
Pictured Above: Zuni Rainbow Man Pin, 1920-1930. Silver with turquoise, mother of pearl.
Italian Renaissance: During the Italian Renaissance, the art of commesso (also known as Florentine inlay) emerged. This technique used cut gemstones to create intricate pictorial mosaics for jewelry and decorative panels.
The stone inlay technique's origins are diverse and not limited to any one region or culture. Various societies developed and refined the technique based on available materials and local aesthetic preferences. The consistent thread throughout its history is the desire to bring together different colored and textured materials to create intricate, beautiful designs.